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 ADC  ADC = analog digital converter An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Typically, an ADC converts a voltage to a digital number. A digital-toanalog converter (DAC) performs the reverse operation.
 AEC  AEC = auto exposure control
  AFE = analog front end The AFE conditions the analog signal received from the image sensor and performs the analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.
 AGC  AGC = auto gain control AGC means that the electronic amplification of the video signal is automatically adjusted to compensate for varying levels of scene illumination.
 AGP   Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is an interface specification that enables 3D graphics to display quickly on ordinary personal computers.
 Aliasing  Phenomenon of interference which occurs when a signal being sampled contains frequencies that are higher than half the sampling frequency. Typically can be seen as ragged edges on horizontal lines.
 Analog  A type of signal in an electronic circuit that takes on a continuous range of values. The opposite of digital.
 Analog front end  See AFE; AFE = analog front end. The AFE conditions the analog signal received from the image sensor and performs the analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.
 Angstrom  Unit of length. One angstrom = 1 Å = 10-10 meters = 0.0000000001 meters = 0.1 nanometers. Angstroms are the units generally used when discussing wavelengths of light.
 Ant-Blooming  Some sensors, offer an optional anti-blooming gate designed to bleed off overflow from a saturated pixel. Without this feature, a bright star which has saturated the pixels (much greater than 85,000 electrons) will cause a vertical streak. This can be irritating at best, and if the streak bleeds onto your target object, there is no way to recover the lost data. CCDs with Anti-blooming gate protection are NOT recommended for low light level work because of the reduced sensitivity of these devices IF a better option is available. Because of these drawbacks, users of CCDs without anti-blooming gates have chosen an alternate method to avoid blooming. Rather than taking a single long exposure in which blooming is almost certain to occur, take several short exposures, in which the brightest objects haven't begun to bloom, and stack the exposures together with image processing software. The signal-to-noise ratio remains the same as in the longer exposure, but the result is free of anti-blooming. Anti-blooming gates built into the CCD occupy about 30% of the pixel area. The result is a 70% fill factor and reduced sensitivity and well depth. The reduced sensitivity means that you have to expose almost twice as long to get the same signal level as a CCD without the anti-blooming feature. Also, the area of the CCD occupied by the anti-blooming gate leaves a significant gap between pixels, reducing the effective resolution of the sensor. Most of the CCDs we sell, such as the Kodak KAF-1001e, KAF-4200, E2V 47-10 and 42-40 do not have anti-blooming gates. All of our Interline CCDs such as the kai-2020 and 4020 do have anti-blooming gates.

Since opinions vary on which is the ideal method to achieve anti-blooming, we offer the following guidelines for selection:

1. If non-blooming of bright objects is critical for your application, and if guiding twice as long to overcome the loss in sensitivity is not bothersome, then the anti-blooming option may be for you.

2. For tri-color imaging, front-illuminated CCDs already have low response in the blue. Therefore, the lessened response with the anti-blooming gates will require extremely long exposures with the blue filter to obtain good color balance. For this and other applications that require good response to blue light, you may wish to use the stacking method to avoid blooming.
 AOI  AOI = area of interest; see "Area Of Interest"
 Application Specific Machine Vision System  A turnkey machine vision system that addresses a specific application found throughout one or more industries
 Area Lighting
  Lighting used for the illumination of an area
 Area Camera  All cameras covering an area at once rather than a single line at a time. Area Cameras are of two types: interlaced and progressive scan.
 Area Of Interest  Area of interest readout (AOI) refers to a camera function whereby only a portion of the available pixels are read out from the camera. For example, it is possible to read out a 10 x 20 pixel rectangular area of pixels from a camera that has a total resolution of 648 x 488. The result is a much faster frame rate and less data to be processed. This is also referred to as partial scan. Various autofunctions (auto shutter, auto gain, auto white balance) act on the AOI.
 Asynchronous Shutter  The camera CCD starts to accumulate electrons on receipt of an external trigger pulse.
 Asynchronous         Transmission Mode  Asynchronous transmission mode is a mode supported by IEEE 1394 includes receipt datagrams that indicate that the data was transmitted includes receipt datagrams that indicate that the data was transmitted reliably to the 1394 device. Asynchronous data transfers place emphasis on delivery rather than timing. The data transmission is guaranteed, and retries are supported. An example for an asynchronous transmission mode is the one-shot comand. All cameras receive the one-shot command in the same IEEE 1394 bus cycle. This creates uncertainty for all cameras in the range of 125 µs.
 Auto Median  Dual combinations of openings and closings. Auto Median generates simpler objects with fewer details.
 Auto Threshold: Clustering  Applies a threshold to an image based on a statistical technique called clustering.
 Auto Threshold: Entropy  Applies a threshold to an image based on an image analysis technique called entropy.
 Auto Threshold: Inter Variance  Applies a threshold to an image based on a classical statistical technique called interclass variance.
 Auto Threshold: Metric  Applies a threshold to an image by calculating the optimal threshold, which depends on the surfaces representing the initial grayscale, using the metric technique.
 Auto Threshold: Moments  Applies a threshold to an image by using a statistical tool called moments, which recalculates a theoretical binary image.
 AWB  AWB = auto white balance; A system for automatically setting the white balance in digital cameras. See white balance

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